Time & Frequency Articles

Frequency Synthesis and Conversion

Waveform Conversion

Two Diode Odd-Order Multiplier

Phase Locking and Tuning

PLLs using ULN Oscillators Includes info on Type-2 loops.

Switching Diode Frequency Doublers (pdf, 66k) 

Unusual Frequency Dividers (pdf, 35k) 

HCMOS Gates Make Frequency Multipliers (pdf, 27k) 

Choosing a Frequency Multiplier’s Waveform (pdf, 32k)

Frequency Tripler using the CA3028 (pdf, 15k) 

Simple Divide-By-N using ‘161s ( pdf, 9k)

A Sub-Picosecond Phase Stability Frequency Multiplier

Phase Noise/ AM Noise

Frequency Difference Divider  The opposite of a frequency difference multiplier?

Low-Cost Phase Noise Measurement   

Phase Noise, Harmonics and Sub-Harmonics

Low Noise Amplifier for Phase Noise Measurements (pdf, 33k) Features less input noise than a 50 ohm resistor.

Audio Noise Sources for Generating Phase Noise Generate white and flicker noise.

Low Phase Noise Systems – Hints and Tips  

VHF Oscillator and Multiplier AM Noise  


Oscillator Circuits

Tiny Crystal Oscillator (pdf, 13k) High-stability gate oscillator uses two, 5-pin SOT packaged devices.

Low Distortion Crystal Oscillator (pdf,19k)

Power Supply Circuits

Cockcroft-Walton Diode Voltage Multipliers (pdf, 36k)

Finesse Regulator Noise  

RF Amplifier Circuits

One Watt Class-C Amplifier  (pdf, 11k)

RF Misc. Circuits

Bootstrapped PLL Improves Oscillator Performance (pdf, 33k) 

RF Isolator Uses Differential Amplifiers

Shock and Vibration

Vibration-Induced Phase Noise & Vibration Isolation Systems includes links to spreadsheets for vibration calculations.

Reducing Vibration Induced Phase Noise – Some Research Ideas